Daylight Saving 2020, Daylight Saving in US, Daylight Saving Time

Daylight Saving 2020, Daylight Saving in US, Daylight Saving Time

Daylight saving time is the system of adjusting the official local time, adding an hour to that of the so-called “normal” time zone (which defines the time that prevails in winter), for a period generally from the beginning from spring to mid-autumn, which delays the time when the Sun rises and sets1.

Daylight saving time is mainly used in temperate regions, where seasonal variations in light make this measure relevant. For Europe, the period extends from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October.

For North America, since 2007, this summer period begins on the night of the second Sunday in March, while the return to winter time takes place on the first Sunday in November.

The advantage of daylight-saving time lies in the energy savings that it is supposed to allow in order to take advantage of sunlight later during the summer period; this interest is however put into perspective by the European Commission, according to which these savings are limited2.

According to the latter, the maintenance of summer time in Europe should be mainly motivated by the comfort of leisure in summer evenings.

Daylight Saving 2020, Daylight Saving in US, Daylight Saving Time

When switching to summer time, the clocks are advanced sixty minutes, between midnight and 4 am depending on the country, so it is commonly said that “one hour of sleep is lost”. When switching to winter time, the clocks are delayed by sixty minutes and “one hour of sleep is gained”.

At what time do we change the time?

This Saturday, if you go to bed at midnight, an hour later, it will be one in the morning. But if you go to bed at 2am, an hour later, it will be 4am. Because France changes time this weekend – when the sun lights up your aperitifs a little longer. But where you lose an hour of sleep. The government site explains:

“The switch to summer time will take place on Sunday 25 March 2012 at 2 a.m. You will need to add 60 minutes to legal time. It will then be 3 hours”.

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nullWhy is this change not made at midnight? At 4 o’clock?

“Since 1998, the time change dates have been harmonized within the European Union. In all member countries, the daylight-saving time is on the last Sunday in March and the daylight-saving time on the last Sunday in October. “

Daylight Saving 2020, Daylight Saving in US, Daylight Saving Time A European directive of 2001, extended until today without deadline, specifies that “a date and a time common in all the Member States for the beginning and the end of the period of the summer time” has been agreed. (The calendar is announced five years in advance).

The directive specifies:

‘Since Member States apply summer time arrangements, it is important for the functioning of the internal market to continue to set a common date and time for the start and end of the summer season. summer time valid in the community area. “

Article 2 of the directive specifies:

‘From 2002, summer time begins in each Member State at 1 a.m., universal time, on the last Sunday in March.’

Daylight Saving 2020, Daylight Saving in US, Daylight Saving Time 1 hour in universal time is 2 hours in France. Eleonore Gaba rain president of the association Contra l’Heure d’Eté Double (ACHED, which opposes the change of hours for reasons of sleep disorders, energy saving) specifies to Slate.fr that the choice 1 am universal time is a matter of logic.

“It must be at night so as not to disturb businesses, transport, etc. It makes sense to choose the first hour of the day.”

A little history: 
It was the American physicist Benjamin Franklin who first proposed, in 1784, to shift the hours in order to save energy. We would have to wait until 1916 for a country, Germany in this case, to adopt this practice. In Canada, a first law was passed in 1918 to establish this use. During the World War 2, the federal government-imposed daylight-saving time throughout Canada.

Why do we change the time?
It is Sunday March 11 that we will advance watches and clocks to daylight saving time. This custom is well rooted in our habits. But why do we change the time?

Daylight Saving 2020, Daylight Saving in US, Daylight Saving Time

Since 2006, Daylight Saving Time has been in effect from the second Sunday in March until the first Sunday in November.

Note that the time change is now a provincial responsibility. Saskatchewan is the only province in Canada that does not change the time.

Energy saving
Originally, the idea of ​​advancing the time in summer made it possible to synchronize the hours when we are awake – and active at work – with the hours of sunshine. It would also reduce energy consumption by reducing the use of lighting in the evening.

Daylight Saving 2020, Daylight Saving in US, Daylight Saving Time Nowadays, this advantage is very limited, since lighting represents less than 5% of household electricity costs. This trend is accentuated by the new energy-saving bulbs. Rather, it is heating that is now the most important element in household electricity consumption, accounting for more than 50% of the bill, but its use is mainly influenced by weather conditions.

The time change can affect the sleep cycle for one or two days. However, for more vulnerable people, this change may have more harmful effects, including attention and appetite disorders, reduced work capacity and an increase in the number of depressions.

Why do we keep changing the time?
Barely 20% of the world’s population changes the time of the year. Knowing that the energy benefits are very limited, one wonders why we still change the time twice a year.

The main reason is to anchor ourselves with the United States, our main economic partner. There is also tradition, which dates back almost a century.

Finally, this is a good reminder to change the batteries in our smoke detectors.

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Daylight Saving 2020, Daylight Saving in US, Daylight Saving Time

The time change can affect the sleep cycle for one or two days. However, for more vulnerable people, this change may have more harmful effects, including attention and appetite disorders, reduced work capacity and an increase in the number of depressions.

Time change: when is the changeover to winter time?
a night which falls at 6 pm, the day which rises at 8:30 am past … Winter time is back. Be careful, be careful since the time change is planned for this weekend. Sunday October 27 at 3 a.m., so it will be 2 a.m. The French will therefore gain an hour of sleep, and we must not forget to adjust watches, clocks and other electrical devices.

Daylight Saving 2020, Daylight Saving in US, Daylight Saving Time

In France, the time change was instituted in 1976, for the sake of energy savings. The goal is to better align the hours of activity with sunshine to limit the use of artificial lighting. Since then, it has spread to 70 countries around the world, mainly in temperate regions.

According to a 2010 government report, the time change would save 440 gigawatts per hour, or the lighting consumption of a city of 800,000 people for a year.

A system that divides
The time change is not unanimous among the French. Sleep, eating disorders, disruption of the biological rhythm, increase in the number of road accidents … Many harmful consequences are attributed to the time change imposed since the 1970s.

If it would have little impact on health, each year, it is criticized for the time change to increase the number of road accidents. “Each year, the change to winter time causes a peak in road accidents of + 47% for pedestrians at the end of the day”, can be read on the Road Safety website, which is running a campaign of prevention initiated by the General Insurance Agents.

This time change should also be called into question soon. After several months of discussions, the European Parliament voted on March 26 to cancel the time change. For the moment, the countries advance by one hour in March (at 2 a.m., it is 3 a.m.) and back by an hour in October (at 3 a.m., it is 2 a.m.). Everyone will now have to decide whether to live permanently in summer or winter time, but this will not happen until 2021.

Time change: its consequences on our organism
It was at the beginning of the last century that England, then Germany and finally France adopted the summer / winter time system, which consists of advancing or delaying the clock by 1 hour at each equinox.

Initially implemented for reasons of energy saving, this process, which is increasingly criticized for its ineffectiveness, is not without consequences for our health. We take stock.

Time change: disturbed sleep
General disorders
When you advance the clock 1 hour in the fall, you “gain” 1 hour of sleep, conversely, you “lose” 1 hour when you move it back in the spring.

Sleep, which operates in 24-hour cycles, can be disrupted for several days, especially when switching to summer time, which reduces sleep by one hour and can cause some people to:

sleep or attention disturbances;
appetite disturbance;
a decrease in work capacity;
mood disorders.
The time change is considered by some scientists to be even more harmful to health than the time difference linked to time zones change during travel:

Indeed, the change of time does not go hand in hand with a change of activity, as during trips, for example.
Man must, without changing his geographic daily life, shift all his activities like so many time marks:
meal times,
wake up time,
bedtime, etc.

Hormonal disturbances related to the change of schedule
Sleep disturbances can also be correlated with hormonal disturbances, directly linked to time changes:

melatonin, the hormone that regulates the wakefulness / sleep rhythm or otherwise called “sleep hormone” is directly affected by the length of the night, which is different in summer and in winter;
it takes 2 hours of dim light for melatonin to reach the level needed to trigger sleep.

What risks and for whom?
People vulnerable to time change
Time change disorders will be more frequent in some people and there are typically 3 risk groups:

the elderly, more used to fixed hours and to short sleep, are more likely to experience a time difference;
children and in particular babies: during the change of summer time, infants go from sleeping / waking in the dark to sleeping / waking in daylight, which can cause disturbances in their sleep;

sick or hospitalized people who are already weak and who suffer more from adjustment problems with the new seasonal hours.
More serious consequences
In addition to classic sleep disturbances, more serious consequences could directly result from the time change. Indeed, according to some studies, we observe:

a 5% increase in the number of heart attacks in the week following daylight saving time;
a 5% decrease in the number of heart attacks during the week following the changeover to winter time.
The extra hour of sleep in fall could have a protective effect. Variations in the number of infarctions would therefore be closely linked to the effects of the time change on sleep patterns and biological rhythms.

Time change: how to prepare for it?It is estimated that it takes about 1 week to adapt to the change in pace caused by the changeover to summer or winter time. But to better prepare for it, there are some precautions to take:

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Daylight Saving 2020, Daylight Saving in US, Daylight Saving Time

Shift your hours of sleep by a few minutes / quarter hours for 2 or 3 days beforehand;
limit stress due to the fear of not waking up by programming your electronic equipment the day before;
Go out daily to take advantage of the sunshine and thus prevent seasonal depression, especially when switching to winter time;

Daylight Saving 2020, Daylight Saving in US, Daylight Saving Time Do not hesitate to change your work rhythm if possible, in order to keep pace with the solar rhythm, go to work earlier to finish earlier and take advantage of the light until the end of the day for example

Get as much rest as possible in the week following the time change.
In addition to these everyday practices, the use of a vitamin or magnesium cure can also be considered. In all cases if fatigue or other symptoms persist, do not hesitate to consult a doctor.

To deepen the subject

For a constructive day, waking up well is the first thing to do. Adopt the right actions!
Take a few tests to determine your needs and schedules for optimal sleep.
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Time change, on your clocks!
Sunday October 27, 2019, France switches to winter time. At 3 a.m., it will be 2 a.m.
In March 2019, MEPs voted to end the seasonal time change. This reform should take effect in 2021. For now, the waltz of needles continues!

• Move the needles forward or back, eternal question!
When switching to winter time we move the hands back one hour: at 3 a.m. it will be 2 a.m. To avoid confusion, it is better to instruct a single person to set all the clocks on D-day time. And do not touch smartphones, tablets, computers, internet boxes that automatically switch to the new time! In case of doubt, the speaking clock remains: at 3669 (€ 2.99 per call)

• Our disoriented biological clock…
French experts agree that time changes disrupt our biological clock for four to five days. Mood, appetite and sleep pay the price, especially in babies and the elderly.

• It even makes cows go wild!
According to breeders, ruminants produce less and less quality milk when the time changes. Some producers therefore shift from quarter to hour to quarter hour for four days to milking time to lure them on the time change.

• 200 years of waltz-hesitation
The inventor Benjamin Franklin first mentioned the idea in 1784. It was to save coal during the First World War that Germany adopted it on April 30, 1916. It was followed by England and the France. During the World War 2, the German occupier imposed summer time on France for the same reason.

Daylight Saving 2020, Daylight Saving in US, Daylight Saving Time

The measure is immediately abandoned at the Liberation. In 1976, following the first oil shock, President Giscard d’Estaing decided to resume this measure in order to reduce the need for lighting and therefore energy. The principle being to make the periods of sunshine coincide as much as possible with the periods of activity.

• In Brittany and the French overseas departments and territories, no question!
In the French overseas departments and territories, the sunset and sunrise times varying very slightly, the measure was not considered useful. And at the extreme tip of Brittany

on the island of Molène, a handful of diehards have simply refused it, in one direction as in the other, since 1976, or even since the Occupation. For them, the day of October 29 will only count 11 pm!

• The Russian exception
In Europe, since 1998, the date change has been harmonized except in Russia where, since 2014, Vladimir Putin has decided that the Russians will live all year round in winter time.

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