How Does a Refrigerator Work

How Does a Refrigerator Work

The next time you enjoy a cold drink on a hot day, you will have your fridge (and freezer onboard) to thank you for the refreshing drink you are about to get.

A long time ago, you had to get wealthy or connected to get a soft drink with floating ice. Large fortunes were sold by the wealthy in isolated cargo ships around the world with blocks of ice. Today we don’t have such discomfort.

Before the refrigerator exists, keeping food in good condition is a costly task. You can salt the food, and in winter you can bury the food in a heap, hoping the animals won’t find it. You had to work at it – or there had to be a lot of money – to provide the essentials.

How Does a Refrigerator Work

The refrigerator is one of the innovations that has changed our way of life so much. We can handle food more easily, so there are very few things that concern us, such as illness caused by food. The food supply is also more stable.

A carton of milk stays in the refrigerator for a few weeks at the counter for a few hours. Impressive! It means that you don’t need a cow in your backyard if you want to provide regular milk.

The fundamentals of the refrigerator also work on another critical tool: air conditioning. It estimated that 5% of all American electrical energy acts used to cool our homes. It is perfect, especially considering that the principle of cooling is straightforward.

If you want to get rid of the heat, you need to convert the liquid to a gaseous state.

Contents

1. Purpose of cooling

2. Refrigerator parts

3. Understanding cooling

4. Cooling cycle

5. propane and gas coolers

6.electric and solar refrigerators

6.1. The “Peltier Effect” experience

7. Cold compresses

Purpose of reconstruction

The main reason for having a fridge is to keep food cool. Cold temperatures help keep food fresh longer. The basic idea of ​​cooling is to reduce bacterial activity (as in all foods) so that bacteria take longer to spoil food.

For example, if left in the kitchen outside the refrigerator at room temperature, bacteria will spoil the milk in two to three hours. For this reason, by lowering the temperature of the milk, it stays fresh for one or two weeks – the cold weather inside the refrigerator considerably reduces the activity of bacteria.

Milk completely freezes bacteria and milk lasts for months (until the effects of freezer burns start to spoil the milk, without the bacterial impact).

Cooling and freezing are two common ways of preserving food today.

Refrigerator parts: How Does a Refrigerator Work

If you put a small amount of alcohol on your skin, you will be cold – freezing. It’s not refrigerated, so how is it going? Well, the alcohol evaporates at room temperature, so the water evaporates in a warm climate. When it evaporates, it absorbs heat from the surface of your skin, making you feel cold in the area.

A particular product called coolant works in the fridge, as does alcohol on your skin unless the coolant gets stuck in a series of coils. Thus, it makes a circuit through its interior, constantly passing from liquid to gas.

  • A compressor
  • Heat exchanger pipes (set of serpentine or spiral lines outside the unit)
  • Regulator
  • Heat exchanger pipes (set of twisted or spiral lines in the unit)
  • Refrigerator (the liquid it evaporates inside the fridge to create a colder temperature).

Understanding reconstruction

to understand what is going on inside the refrigerator, let’s learn a bit about how the fridge works by experimenting. You will need:

  • A glass cooking bowl filled with water
  • Thermometer measuring at least 450 degrees Fahrenheit (232.2 degrees Celsius)

Place the thermometer in a bowl filled with water and place the two items in the oven. Set the range to 400 degrees Fahrenheit (204.4 degrees Celsius).

The temperature inside the oven is 400 degrees Fahrenheit (204.4 degrees Celsius), while the water temperature is 212 degrees Fahrenheit (100 degrees Celsius).

If you remove the water from the bowl, the thermometer will blow the sky up to 400 degrees Fahrenheit.

Consider this experience: imagine the presence of an exotic creature who can live happily in an oven at 400 degrees Fahrenheit. Let’s call her Kim. If Kim is excellent in the 400 ° F oven and standing next to a bowl of 212 ° F (100 ° C) hot water, what will she think of the water? You think it’s cool.

Above all, the water in the container is 188 degrees cooler than the 400, F in which it is practical. It’s a big difference in temperature!

How Does a Refrigerator Work

It is as well what happens when a human encounters liquid nitrogen. We feel comfortable at 70 ° F (21.2 ° C), but liquid nitrogen is at -320 ° F (-195.5 ° C). If you have a jar of liquid nitrogen on the kitchen table, boiling it at -320 ° F (195.5 ° C) will keep you very cool (and that cold will burn you!).

Modern refrigerators use a cooling cycle to reuse a single refrigerator. You get an idea of ​​how it works by remembering Kim and his bowl of water. It can easily create a cooling cycle by following these steps:

  1. The bowl of the water oven is boiled at 212 ° F (100 ° C) and reduced to 400 ° F to evaporate. Suppose Kim stores this vapor in a large bag.
  2. After all the water has evaporated, Kim puts the steam in an iron container, where the temperature reaches 800ºF (426.6ºC), increasing the pressure. Now Kim thinks the iron container is too “hot” because it contains steam at 800 ° F (426.6 ° C) instead of 400 ° F.
  3. The iron container releases this additional temperature into the open air. It ultimately converts the oven temperature to 400 ° F. In the process, the container’s high-pressure steam freezes in pressurized water.
  4. Found in its point, Kim releases the compressed water from the container into a pan, and as soon as it starts to boil, the temperature drops to 212 ° F.

Our exotic creature, Kim, explains how state changes work to understand the cooling cycle. If you want to continue doing this, you just need to repeat these four previous steps, using the same water over and over again.

Refrigeration cycle

How Does a Refrigerator Work

Your kitchen refrigerator uses a cycle similar to the one described above. The difference is that the circulation in your refrigerator is continuous. In the following example, suppose the coolant used is pure ammonia, which is boiled at -27 ° F. Here’s what happens to keep the fridge cool:

  1. The compressor compresses the ammonia gas. When the compressed air acts pressed, its temperature increases.
  2. The pipes at the back of the refrigerator allow the release of hot temperatures from the ammonia gas. Ammonia gas condenses in liquid ammonia at high pressure.
  3. High pressure of liquid ammonia flows through the regulator. You can think of the regulator as a small hole. On one side of the hole, the ammonia is in a liquid state at high pressure while the pressure on the other side is low (because the compressor absorbs the gas on this side).
  4. The liquid ammonia is boiled and evaporated quickly, reaching its temperature of -27ºF. It cools the interior of the refrigerator.
  5. The gas compressor absorbs the cold ammonia, the circle repeats.

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How Does a Refrigerator Work

By the way, if you turn off the car on a hot summer day when you turn on the air conditioning, you may hear a noise under the hood. This noise is the noise of a high-pressure coolant flowing through the regulator.

Pure ammonia gas is very toxic to people and can cause severe problems if the refrigerator breaks down, so domestic refrigerators do not use pure ammonia. You may have heard of refrigerators such as CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons); Du Pont act developed in the 1930s as a non-toxic gas that replaces ammonia. CFC-12 (dichlorodifluoromethane) has the same boiling point as ammonia. However, CFC-12 is not toxic to humans, so it’s safe to use in your kitchen. However, most industrial refrigerators still use ammonia.

In the 1970s, they found that the use of CFCs was harmful to the ozone layer; therefore, in the 1990s, all new refrigerators and air conditioners used refrigerators that were less harmful to the ozone layer.

Gas and propane refrigerators

If you own an RV, you probably have a gas or propane refrigerator. In this way, they use the temperature to produce chills inside the refrigerator.

The fridge has five main components:

  • Generator – Creates ammonia gas.
  • Separator – separates ammonia gas from water.
  • Condenser – Here the hot ammonia gas cools and forms liquid ammonia
  • Evaporation – converted to liquid ammonia gas to produce cool temperatures inside the refrigerator
  • Damper – absorbs ammonia gas in water.

It works like this:

  1. Heat acts applied to the water-ammonia solution in the generator. (The heat comes from gas, propane, and kerosene.)
  2. When the mixture reaches the boiling point of ammonia, it flows into the separator.
  3. The ammonia gas flows through the condenser, disperses the heat and becomes liquid again.
  4. Liquid ammonia acts directed to the evaporator, where it evaporates with hydrogen gas, producing cold temperatures inside the refrigerator.
  5. The ammonia and hydrogen gas flow into the buffer, where the water stored in the separator in step 2 acts mixed with ammonia and hydrogen gas.
  6. The ammonia forms a solution with water and releases hydrogen gas, which acts returned to the buffer.
  7. Water flow to the ammonia solution and the generator to repeat the cycle.

Gas and propane refrigerators follow the same model as the refrigerators you have at home. The biggest difference you can find is the use of a different refrigerant. Gas and propane use ammonia to produce chills in the refrigerator.

Gas and propane refrigerators

You don’t need a backpack to keep your potato salad fresh if you have a handy fridge that plugs into a cigarette lighter. These devices act exploited by a special process known as the Peltier effect, the thermoelectric effect, to produce cold temperatures. It’s so ridiculous and something we haven’t talked about yet.

The Peltier effect experience

The name “Peltier Effect” was its inventor, a 19th-century French physicist. You can create a Peltier effect yourself using a battery, two pieces of copper wire, and a bismuth or iron wire.

Attach the copper wires to the two battery pulleys, then connect the bismuth or iron wire between the two copper wires. (Bismuth/iron and copper must be linked – this connection causes the Peltier effect.)

The junction of copper to bismuth begins to heat up, and the intersection of bismuth to copper becomes cold.

The maximum temperature reached by a hot junction is 40 degrees Fahrenheit (22.2 degrees Celsius) at room temperature.

As you would expect, an electric refrigerator is located outside the hot junction unit and inside the hot junction. Into maximize efficiency, chillers have many, many seals.

Electric refrigerators are not the only invention designed to cool your meals. Solar refrigerators are another option. If you plan on spending your free camping time (or want to start your hot dog stand), you may want a soft drink but no power for a regular refrigerator.

Don’t worry; you can use a solar-powered refrigerator, which extracts heat to produce cold inside an ordinary solar panel. Use sunlight to cool something? It’s smarter.

Cold compresses

Speaking of cooling and cold, have you ever used “instant cold packs” that look like a plastic bag filled with liquid? You just hit it, stir it, and it’s freezing. What’s going on inner?

Cool the liquid water inside. There is another plastic bag containing ammonia nitrate fertilizer in the water. When you hit the cold compress, the tube breaks and causes the water to mix with the manure. The temperature of the solution drops to 35 ° F (1.66 ° C) for 10 or 15 minutes.

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